Water Treatment

Objectives:

This program has been designed to qualify the water treatment staff (operators, chemists, engineers and lab staff) in water treatment plants, power stations, refineries, and oil fields to understand the basics and details of water chemistry and different types of water treatment systems for both residential usage and industrial purposes and the chemical analysis of water, according to standard methods of analysis such as ASTM, the standard methods of analysis of APHA, and EPA. Also to understand the pretreatment water systems, drinking water systems, boiler water treatment systems, demineralization plants, reverse osmosis (feed and product water treatment), industrial waste water plants (API, TPI, CPI, & DAF), chlorination of water for drinking and cooling purposes and the related lab tests for every water treatment systems, the significance and standard legislations of all parameters , hence the staff will relate between the operating performance of different water plants and lab tests.

    Outlines:

    • Introduction to water chemistry
    • Chemistry of water
    • Structure of water molecule
    • The polarity of water molecule
    • The hydrogen bond
    • Physical and chemical properties of water:
    • Density and Specific Gravity
    • Ice structure:
    • Boiling Point & Melting Point of Water:
    • Specific heat capacity of water:
    • The thermal conductivity of water rises to a maximum at about 130°C and then falls:
    • The electrical conductivity of water rises to a maximum at about 230°C and then falls
    • Surface tension:
    • Capillary action:
    • Ionization of water molecule
    • The Osmosis and the Osmotic pressure
    • Water in the earth and the hydrologic cycle
    • Earth's water distribution
    • Earth's water: Rivers and streams
    • What is a river?
    • Earth's water: Runoff
    • Ground water: Wells
    • Evaluation of water supplies and the suitable processes for treatment
    • Units & measurements
    • Concentration units in water science
    • Water contaminants
    • Sediment
    • Organics
    • Micro Organisms
    • Inorganic Ions
    • Preliminary treatment of raw water
    • Screening
    • Clarification
    • Coagulation
    • Flocculation
    • Filtration
    • Sand Filtration
    • Activated Carbon and media filtration
    • Demineralization
    • Introduction
    • Purpose of Demineralization
    • Strong Acid Cation
    • Weak Acid Cation
    • Strong Base Anion
    • Weak Base Anion
    • Mixed-Bed Polishers
    • Demineralizer Costs and Regeneration
    • Troubleshooting Tips for the Demineralizer
    • Reverse Osmosis Treatment of Drinking Water
    • What Is Reverse Osmosis
    • Reducing contaminants through RO
    • The reverse osmosis process
    • Design of an RO system
    • RO membrane materials
    • Efficiency of ROsystems
    • Maintenance of an RO system
    • Choosing an RO system
    • Membrane cleaning
    • Multistage flash distillation MSF Cooling Systems
    • Introduction
    • Types of Cooling Water Systems
    • Once-Through Cooling
    • Closed Cooling
    • Open Recirculating Cooling Towers
    • Types of Towers
    • Problems in Cooling Water Systems
    • Microbiological Contamination
    • Corrosion
    • Cooling Water Heat Exchangers
    • Disinfection
    • Chlorination
    • Chemistry of Chlorine
    • Other Disinfectants
    • Chlorination of Water
    • Drinking Water Chlorination
    • Chlorination of sea water